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A Historical Timeline for the Book of Daniel

Jehoiakim, king of Judah, was born  


The word of the Lord first came to Jeremiah 23 years before Nebuchadnezzar's first year as king. (Jeremiah 25:1-3)  


Jehoiachin is born 18 years before he began his 3 month reign in Jerusalem.      


The Babylonians revolted and defeated the Assyrians.        


Jehoiakim begins his reign in Jerusalem  He was 25 years old.          


Daniel arrived in Babylon and began a three year training period Approximate age of Daniel at 13 yrs.             First year of the Israelite Captivity.      


Nebuchadnezzar became king of the Babylonian empire              
Jeremiah spoke the word of the Lord concerning the people of Judah and their idolatry. (Jeremiah 25:1)    


Daniel interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the statue.      




Jehoiakim is overthrown by Nebuchadnezzar and Jehoiachin, his son, succeeded him.        


Jehoiachin was 18 years old and reigned 3 months in Jerusalem

Imprisoned in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar

Nebuchadnezzar made Zedekiah king of Judah  
Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem and the temple.      


Zedekiah was blinded and carried to Babylon.      
Nebuchadnezzar made Gedaliah king of Judah.    


Nebuchadnezzar died and was succeeded by his son.      


Amel-Marduk became king of Babylon    
Amel-Marduk released Jehoiachin from prison.   Jehoiachin remained in Babylon till his death.        


Amel-Marduk was assassinated and succeeded by Neriglissar        




Neriglissar died and his Labashi-Marduk succeeded him      


Labashi-Marduk was killed and succeeded by Nabonidus    


Nabonidus appointed his son Belshazzar co-regent of Babylonia.          


Daniel dreamed the prophetic dream of the 4 beasts. (Daniel 7) Approximate age of Daniel at 66 yrs.          
Daniel saw the vision of the ram and the goat. (Daniel 8) Approximate age of Daniel at 69 yrs.           556
Daniel interpreted the writing on the wall for Belshazzar (Daniel 5) Approximate age of Daniel at 80 yrs.          


Belshazzar overthrown and killed.          
Nabonidus was overthrown by the Medo-Persians.  End of the Babylonian Empire     
Beginning of the Medo-Persian Empire under Cyrus.       538
Darius (Cyaxares II), uncle of Cyrus, takes the throne of Babylon    
Cyrus issued the decree to rebuild the temple. Ezra 1:1 as prophesied in Isaiah in 44:26-28       537
Daniel received the vision of the seventy weeks.  
Daniel thrown in the Lions Den. Approximate age of Daniel at 82 yrs.       69th year of the Israelite Captivity.
Darius (Cyaxares II), uncle of Cyrus, dies.           536
Cyrus becomes sole ruler of Medo-Persian Empire and frees the Israelites to go rebuild the temple.                 70th year of the Israelite Captivity.    
Work on the temple was started and halted two years after the Israelites returned.   Ezra 3:8-11     (Approximation) 535
Daniel received the vision recorded in chapter 10, 11 and 12. 533
Cambyses II (Artaxerxes), Co-regent with and son of Cyrus begins reign.       529
Cyrus died and was succeeded by Cambyses II of Persia   530
Cambyses II of Persia died.      522
Darius the Great (Hystaspes) began his reign in September of 522
Work on the temple ceased until the 2nd year of Darius.   520
The temple was finished in the 6th year of the reign of Darius.    Ezra 6:15   516
Darius the Great died in October of 486 BC             486
Xerxes I, son of Darius begins his reign in 486 BC.  (Ahasuerus of Esther)            
The fourth king stood up (Ahasuerus) and did according to his will.  Daniel 11:2    
Queen Vashti was deposed by Xerxes 1, (Ahasuerus)     484
Hadassah (Esther) was made queen of Persia       480
Xerxes I was assasinated       465
Artaxerxes I Longimanus began his reign as king. 
Artaxerxes sent Ezra to Jerusalem to beautify the temple in the seventh year of his reign.   (Ezra chapter 7)     458
Artaxerxes sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem to rebuild the walls of the city in his 20th year as king.     444
Artaxerxes I Longimanus died     424
Xerxes II son of Artaxerxes I reigned for 45 days and was murdered by his brother Sogdianus.
Sogdianus began his reign over the Persian Empire.
Darius II (Nothus) murdered Sogdianus and began his reign. 423
Darius II died     404
Artaxerxes II of Persia Began his reign.
Artaxerxes II of Persia died.     358
Artaxerxes III of Persia begins his reign.
The Birth of Alexander the Great.     356
Artaxerxes III of Persia dies.     338
Arses of Persia (Artaxerxes IV), begins his reign.
Arses of Persia (Artaxerxes IV) dies.     336
Darius III of Persia begins his reign.

Alexander the Great begins his reign.

The mighty king, Alexander the Great, stands up.

 Daniel 11:3
Darius III of Persia dies     330

The Medo Persian Empire falls to Alexander the Great.

Beginning of the Greek Empire.  
Alexander the Great dies. 323
The "King of the South" Ptolemy I Soter established himself in Egypt.  Daniel 11:5

Ptolemy 1 Soter (The king of the South, Egypt) begins his reign.  (Founder Ptolemaic Dynasty)


Antigonus I Monophthalmus begins his reign.  (Founder of the Antigonid Dynasty in Macedonia)


Seleucus I Nicator begins his reign.   Founder of the Seleucus Dynasty.  Ruled over Babylon.


Antigonus I Monophthalmus dies in battle.


Demetrius I of Macedon begins his reign.  (son of Antigonus I)

Antigonid Dynasty     294

Demetrius I of Macedon was forced out of Macedon and off the throne.


Demetrius I of Macedon died in captivity to Seleucus.


Antigonus II Gonatas (son of Demetrius I of Macedon), begins his reign over Macedon.


Ptolemy 1 Soter (The king of the South, Egypt) died.


Ptolemy II Philadelphus begins his reign.  (King of Egypt)

Ptolemaic Dynasty


Seleucus I Nicator dies.


Antiochus I Soter begins his reign.

Antiochus I Soter dies. Seleucid dynasty         261
Antiochus II Theos begins his reign.      
Antiochus II expelled Laodice and married Berenice.  Daniel 11:6

Antiochus II Theos dies.

Seleucid dynasty


Seleucus II Callinicus begins his reign.

Antiochus II expelled Berenice in favor of his former wife, Laodice.  Daniel 11:6

Ptolemy II Philadelphus dies.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt


Ptolemy III Euergetes begins his reign.

Ptolemy II was succeeded by his son Ptolemy III, brother of Berenice.  Daniel 11:7
Ptolemy III retaliated against Seleucus II starting the 3rd Syrian War.  Daniel 11:7
Ptolemy III, after defeating and plundering Syria and Babylon returned to Egypt.  Daniel 11:8-9   241
Birth of Antiochus III the Great. Seleucid dynasty          

Antigonus II Gonatas died at the age of 80 and left his throne to his son.


Demetrius II Aetolicus begins his reign over Macedon.

Antigonid Dynasty  

Demetrius II Aetolicus died.


Antigonus III Doson, grandson of Demetrius I of Macedon, begins his reign.

Seleucus II Callinicus dies.           225
Seleucus III Ceraunus begins his reign.
Seleucus III Ceraunus dies.           223
Antiochus III the Great begins his reign. Seleucid dynasty    

Ptolemy III Euergetes dies


Antigonus III Doson dies in battle.

Antigonid Dynasty 221

Philip V of Macedon begins his reign

Ptolemy IV Philopator begins his reign.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt

Antiochus III recovered all the territories of Syria taken by Ptolemy III of Egypt.  Daniel 11:10   218
Antiochus III was defeated by Ptolemy IV at the Battle of Raphia  Daniel 11:11   217
Ptolemy IV, happy over his victory over Antiochus III, returned home to Egypt.  Daniel 11:12

Ptolemy IV Philopator dies.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt


Ptolemy V Epiphanes begins his reign.

Antiochus III defeated Ptolemy V of Egypt. Daniel 11:13   202
Philip V of Macedon expels the Ptolemaic garrisons from the Aegaen Sea. Daniel 11:14
Antiochus III defeated Scopas at the battle of Paneas Daniel 11:15   198
Antiochus III gave his daughter Cleopatra to Ptolemy V. Daniel 11:17   192
Lucius Scipio Asiaticus defeated Antiochus III at Magnesia. Daniel 11:18   189
Antiochus III, king of the Seleucids, is defeated at the battle of Magnesia and surrenders his possessions in Europe and Asia Minor to the Roman Empire.    
Death of Antiochus III the Great.  Seleucid dynasty       187
Death of Antiochus III the Great.  Daniel 11:19
Seleucus IV Philopator begins his reign.              

Ptolemy V Epiphanes dies.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt


Ptolemy VI Philometor begins his reign at age 6 with his mother, Cleopatra II.

Heliodorus went to Jerusalem to raise tax money.  Daniel 11:20 179

Philip V of Macedon died


Perseus son of Philip V of Macedon begins his reign.


Cleopatra II died and left Ptolemy VI Philometor in sole rule over Egypt.

Death of Seleucus IV Philopator Seleucid dynasty       175
Antiochus IV obtained the throne of Syria by flattery and deception.  Daniel 11:21
Antiochus IV Epiphanes begins his reign. (Son of Antiochus III)              
Antiochus IV deceived and looted his nephew, Ptolemy VI.  Daniel 11:22-23   171
The Third Macedonian War begins with the Romans.  
Antiochus IV was crowned king of Egypt for a short time.  Daniel 11:24   170-168
Antiochus IV began a second invasion of Egypt.  Daniel 11:29
Antiochus IV was turned back by the Romans and returned home through Judea.  Daniel 11:30
Antiochus IV attacked Judea and defiled the temple in Jerusalem.  Daniel 11:31

Ptolemy VI Philometor co-reigned with his sister and Ptolemy VIII Physcon.


Perseus of Macedon defeated by Romans, Macedon annexed by Roman Empire.

End of Antigonid Dynasty   167
Beginning of the Jewish Maccabean Revolt.          
The end of the Third Macedonian War.  The Romans divide Macedonia into four republics.  
Faithful Jews led by the Maccabeans engaged in Guerilla Warfare against Antiochus IV.   Daniel 11:32  
End of the Jewish Maccabean Revolt.     165
Jews reconquered Jerusalem and re-established temple worship.  Daniel 11:35   164
Antiochus IV Epiphanes dies. Seleucid dynasty        
Antiochus V Eupator begins his reign.  

Ptolemy VI was exiled by Ptolemy VIII Physcon to Rome.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt

Ptolemy VI was restored to power by the Alexandrians. 

Antiochus V Eupator dies. Seleucid dynasty     162
Demetrius I Soter begins his reign.  (Son of Seleucus IV Philopator)    

Ptolemy VI ruled jointly with his son Ptolemy Eupator until Eupator died.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt       152
Demetrius I Soter dies.

Seleucid dynasty

Alexander Balas begins his reign. (Supposed son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes)        
Romans conquer Greece after winning the battle of Corinth (and destroying Corinth).   149

Death of Alexander Balas

Seleucid dynasty


Demetrius II Nicator begins his first reign.

Romans destroy Carthage.  

Ptolemy VI Philometor dies.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt         145

Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator reigned with his father Ptolemy VI

Demetrius II Nicator was captured by the Parthians.

Seleucid dynasty

Antiochus VII Sidetes, younger brother of Demetrius II Nicator reigns.          
Attalus III of Pergamum wills his kingdom to Rome and the whole Mediterranean Sea is under Roman control.     133
Antiochus VII Sidetes was killed by Phraates II of Parthia.

Seleucid dynasty

Demetrius II Nicator begins his second reign.          
Southern France (Aquitania) becomes a provinces of Rome.   128
Demetrius II Nicator was captured and killed.

Seleucid dynasty

Cleopatra Thea began her reign.        
Cleopatra Thea was killed by drinking poison she intended for her son Antiochus VIII Grypus.

Seleucid dynasty

 Antiochus VIII Grypus begins his reign.         

Death of Ptolemy VIII Physcon.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt       116

Ptolemy IX Lathyros began his first of three reigns.


Ptolemy IX Lathyros ends his first of three reigns.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt       110

Ptolemy X Alexander deposed Ptolemy IX Lathyros and reigned.


Ptolemy X Alexander is deposed ending his first reign.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt       109

Ptolemy IX Lathyros deposed Ptolemy X and began his second of three reigns.


Ptolemy IX Lathyros ends his second of three reigns.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt       107

Ptolemy X Alexander deposed Ptolemy IX Lathyros again and reigned.

Antiochus VIII Grypus was killed by his minister Heracleon, ending his reign..

Seleucid dynasty

Seleucus VI Epiphanes begins his reign
Seleucus VI Epiphanes died. 95
Demetrius III Eucaerus begins his reign.

Ptolemy X Alexander died.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt     88

Ptolemy IX Lathyros began his third of three reigns.

Demetrius III Eucaerus died. 

Seleucid dynasty

Antiochus XII Dionysos begins his reign.  Disputed with Philip.     87
Antiochus XII Dionysos died leaving what was left of the seleucid empire to the Armenians.

Seleucid dynasty


Ptolemy IX Lathyros was killed ending his third of three reigns.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt     81

Berenice III, daughter of Lathyros, became queen of Egypt.

Berenice III was killed by her husband Ptolemy XI Alexander who took the throne.


Ptolemy XI Alexander was assasinated by the citizens of Alexandria for killing his wife.

Ptolemy XII Auletes begins his first reign in Egypt.

Syria becomes a Roman province under general Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius).     64
General Pompey captures Jerusalem and annexes Palestine into Rome. 63

Ptolemy XII Auletes exiled to Rome

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt     58

Cleopatra V and Berenice IV reigned.


Berenice IV was assasinated by Ptolemy XII Auletes ending her reign.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt     55

Ptolemy XII Auletes regains the throne of Egypt.


Ptolemy XII Auletes dies.  (He appointed his son and daughter co-regents of Egypt).

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt     51

Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator and Cleopatra VII begin reigning in Egypt.

Ceasar crosses the Rubicon, defeats Pompey and becomes sole dictator of Rome, calling himself "imperator".     49

Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator dies, survived by Cleopatra VII.

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt     47

Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIV of Egypt reign together.

Julius Caesar is killed.     44

Ptolemy XIV of Egypt dies, survived by Cleopatra VII. 

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt      

Ptolemy XV Caesarion, Son of Cleopatra VII and Caesar reigns with his mother.

The religious cult of Julius Caesar is officially instituted.     42
"the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods"  Daniel 11:36  
Octavius defeats Mark Anthony at the battle of Actium.      41
"and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships"  Daniel 11:40  
Cleopatra commits suicide and Egypt is annexed to the Roman Empire.   40
"He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape."  Daniel 11:42  

Cleopatra VII committed suicide thus ending the Ptolemaic Dynasty.  Ptolemy XV Caesarion was killed soon afterwards by order of Octavias (Augustus).

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt         30
Octavias appoints himself "Augustus" (the first emperor) and founds the Praetorian Guard.     27
Aelius Gallus failed to subdue Arabia and returned to Egypt with the majority of his forces killed.      24
"but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon"  (territory of Arabia)   Daniel 11:41
Augustus brought Judea under direct Roman Rule.       6 AD
"And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain"  (Judea)   Daniel 11:45
Augustus dies and Tiberius becomes emperor.       14 AD
"he shall come to his end, and none shall help him."   Daniel 11:45    
The daily sacrifice was taken away and the abomination that maketh desolate, (Destruction of Jerusalem)  Daniel 12:11   70 AD
Note: There is much uncertainty about exact "secular" years because history at that time did not refer to years as we know them today.  Every effort has been made to be as accurate as possible, however it must be stated that the dates are shown here as the closest approximation possible.




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